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Home > Blog > Event > 不想當小媽媽 青少女該怎麼避孕?

不想當小媽媽 青少女該怎麼避孕?



(健康醫療網/記者關嘉慶報導)

隨著網路和3C產品的盛行,很容易取得有關性方面的訊息,使得台灣孩子越來越早熟,初次性行為年齡也越來越低,小小年紀就奉子成婚的比例增加,甚至夾娃娃潮也跟著出現;由此可見,仍有不少年輕男女對於避孕觀念相當不正確。

其實,目前已有很多避孕方法,尤其是口服避孕藥,因為醫藥進步日新月異,甚至有增加了鐵劑的口服避孕藥,不但可以避孕,還可以調經和改善水腫、青春痘及貧血等許多附加價值,對於正值青春年華的青少女而言,確實是一大福音!

青少女懷孕一年預估約1萬5000人

根據內政部統計,近十年來,15至19歲青少女一年約有3000人生育,有千分之四生育率,相當全台一年19萬至20萬新生兒中,有1.5%是未成年青少女所生,在東亞名列前茅。另外,研究顯示,5個未成年青少女懷孕中只有1人選擇生子;所以預估每年有1萬2000名未成年青少女選擇流產。

避孕方式有藥物型和非藥物型

婦產科醫師廖子緯表示,16歲以上在學女生有性經驗者不少,要避免成為小媽媽,避孕很重要。目前避孕方式很多,有非藥物型避孕方式和藥物型避孕方式。非藥物型避孕包括保險套,體外射精、結紮、避孕器等;藥物型避孕方式包括口服避孕藥、避孕環、避孕貼片和子宮內投藥系統等。每種避孕方式各有優缺點,根據統計顯示,藥物型避孕的成功率較高。

保險套、算安全期容易失敗

然而,國人選擇使用避孕藥來避孕的卻不如國外。廖子緯醫師指出,台灣最常用的避孕方式為保險套、算安全期和體外射精,這都是容易失敗方式;但國外較常使用避孕藥、結紮和保險套,避孕成功率高。台灣口服避孕藥使用率近年有上升趨勢,但是以都會區較多。此外很多20歲左右女性,因為功課或工作壓力,出現月經不規律,不知何時來月經,且不知如何避孕,經就醫檢查沒有器質性異常及使用禁忌,醫師可開立口服避孕藥使用半年,讓月經規律。

經前症候群、經血量多、貧血、青春痘可用口服避孕藥調整

另外,對於有經前症候群的青少女,由於經前雌激素下降會有頭痛、乳房痛、水腫及煩躁等症狀,也可使用口服避孕藥調整。還有人是經血量過多,有貧血現象,經由醫師檢查排除惡性腫瘤,8成女性也可以用避孕藥來改善;甚至有人會在下巴脖子周圍有青春痘,雄性素受器敏感度較高,也可以使用避孕藥來治療。

雌激素小於0.02毫克、黃體素有NETA成分避孕藥勝出

廖子緯醫師說明,女性很在意體重,若是吃了避孕藥會使體重上升,也會讓人不願意吃,這就攸關避孕藥中雌激素與黃體素成分。雌激素小於0.02毫克,較不會使體重增加;至於避孕藥中黃體素有NETA成分可提高雄性荷爾蒙結合球蛋白,使血液中的游離雄性素下降,因而降低痘痘發生率。此外,更重要的一點是NETA成分的口服避孕藥有較低的血栓風險,降低避孕藥的血栓疑慮。

避孕藥中添加鐵劑有雙重好處

另外,女性很常見的貧血與經血量過多問題,目前也有避孕藥中添加鐵劑,以24顆加上4顆二價鐵的鐵劑方式來改善;廖子緯醫師認為,添加鐵劑的避孕藥,不僅可使月經規律,月經量減少之外,還額外可補血,避孕藥中有鐵劑成分是有雙重好處。

避孕藥劑型28顆比21顆失敗率較低

 至於避孕藥的劑型不同,對於避孕效果有影響嗎?廖子緯醫師解釋,避孕藥的劑型有21顆及28顆,28顆避孕失敗率是0.59%,21顆是1%。28顆的經期出血量是3.7天,21顆是4.6天;非經期點狀出血量,28顆的有6.3天,21顆有7.3天。會有差別是因使用過程中是否有耐受性與持續規律使用有關係。

口服避孕藥搭配保險套效果好

口服避孕藥於1963年發表,是最早出現且成功率很好的避孕方式。廖子緯醫師強調,市面上避孕藥選項眾多,選擇安全以及能規律使用的避孕藥是女性最重要的考量。女性如果想要使用避孕藥,可先記錄月經週期,就醫檢查,和醫師討論婦科及避孕疑問,加做子宮頸抹片,再選擇合適自己的口服避孕藥。如果能搭配保險套使用,便可享受安全安心的兩性生活。


資料來源:健康醫療網 https://www.healthnews.com.tw/news/article/40153/
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